WORKS CITED (Bibliography)
Quick Guide to MLA 2016

You must always record the sources you use when writing a report.  A common method to use when writing a bibliography is the MLA (Modern Language Association) style.  This brief guide to MLA Style gives examples of how to use it for common types of sources.   If a source you used is not in the samples below, please see your teacher or me for help.  The purpose of the Works Cited list is to show where you obtained your information. There may be more than one correct way to document a source, but the goal is to give enough information about your sources that a reader of your work can locate them using the details you provide.
You should gather information about your sources while you are doing your research.  Answering these simple questions, and recording the information for later use in building your Works Cited, will also help you to evaluate the sources for their usefulness to you AND for their quality.  WHO is the author?  WHAT is the title?  HOW was the source published?  WHERE did you find the source?  WHE was the source published?,


  1. Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper.
  2. Label the page Works Cited, centered at the top of the page.
  3. Use a single alphabetical list for all sources: books, electronic sources, newspapers and magazines, etc.
  4. Alphabetize citations by the last name of the author or, if there is no author, by title.  Remember that if a title begins with a, an, or the, alphabetize by the second word.
  5. Double space all citations, but do not skip additional spaces between entries.
  6. Indent second and following lines of an individual entry by five spaces (hanging indent).
  7. Do not number your entries or label the parts.
  8. Capitalize each word in the titles of articles, books, etc, but do not capitalize articles, short prepositions, or conjunctions unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle: Gone with the Wind, The Art of War, There Is Nothing Left to Lose.
  9. Use italics for titles of longer works or containers (books, magazines) and quotation marks for titles of shorter works (poems, articles) found within another work or container.
  10. Follow punctuation found in examples exactly.
  11. For each type of source, include as many of the required elements listed as you are able to find.  If you don’t find an element, simply leave it out!

A citation for a book includes the following:

  • Author name (Lastname, Firstname Middleinitial or name)
  • Title of Work (italicized)
  • Name of publisher, copyright year

Example - Book with one author:
Morris, Neil.  Ancient Egypt. Smart Apple, 2004.

Example - Book with more than one author:
Putnam, James and George Hart.  Ancient Egyptians. Dorling Kindersley, 1996.

Example - Book with no author:
Moses and the Flight from Egypt. Silver Burdett, 1984.

A citation for a magazine article includes the following:

  • Author name (follow same rules as for books)
  • “Title of Article” (in quotation marks)
  • Title of Magazine or Container (italicized)
  • Date of publication (month & year; day month & year if available; abbreviate month to 3 letters)
  • Volume and issue number (if available)
  • Page numbers of the article

Example - Magazine Article:
Williams, A. R. "Death on the Nile." National Geographic, vol. 176, Oct. 2002, pp. 2-25.

A citation for an encyclopedia article includes the following elements:

  • Author
  • “Title of Article” (in quotation marks)
  • Title of Encyclopedia (italizicized)
  • Edition (year)
  • Volume number
  • Page numbers

Example – Print Encyclopedia:  
“Egypt, Ancient.” World Book Encyclopedia, 2004th ed., vol. 6, pp. 135–145.

A citation for an electronic source includes the following elements, in order:

  • Author name (Lastname, Firstname Middleinitial or name)
  • “Title of Article” (in quotations)
  • Title of Overall Website (in italics)
  • Publisher or sponsor of the site
  • Date of publication or last update
  • URL (address) of the website (do not include http or https)

Example - Website:
Kinnaer, Jacques. “Giza, Wonder of the World.” The Ancient Egypt Site, 9 Dec. 2014,

Example - Online newspaper or journal article:
Denyer, Simon. “In Egypt, Archaeologists Open New Tombs to Woo Tourists.” Washington Post, 29 July 2012,

Example – Online Encyclopedia:
“Ancient Egypt.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Dec. 2016,

A citation for an image includes the following elements, in order:

  • Artist’s name (follow same format as for books, etc.)
  • “Title of Image” (in quotation marks)
  • Name of Website (italicized)
  • Publisher or sponsor of the site
  • Date of creation
  • URL (address) of website (do not include http or https)

Mapp, Roger d'Olivere. “Sphinx and Pyramid of Chephren, Giza.” Dkimages, Dorling Kindersley Publications, 29 Sept. 2010,





If you have trouble setting up a citation for a bibliography, there are places on the internet for help.  Visit, select the style you want to follow, plug your information into the forms, then copy & paste your Works Cited or bibliography page into your document!   Easy Bib at


This site provides information using PDF, visit this link to download the Adobe Acrobat Reader DC software.